Results for Questioning strategies
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Hudicourt-Barnes, J. (2003). The use of argumentation in Haitian Creole science classrooms. Harvard Educational Review, 73(1), 73–93.

This article uses critical ethnography and analysis of student talk to refute claims that Haitian children are less than fully engaged in science classrooms. Josiane Hudicourt-Barnes provides examples from a bilingual science classroom to explain cultural differences in language and in students’ understanding of scientific argumentation. Hudicourt-Barnes posits that the Creole talk style of bay odyans is naturally scientific because it uses logic in argumentation. Ultimately, Hudicourt-Barnes proposes, cultural ways of thinking and speaking are good bases for science talk, particularly for argumentation.


Hsu, P.-L., Roth, W.-M., & Mazumder, A. (2009). Natural pedagogical conversations in high school students’ internship. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 46(5), 481–505.

This study identifies the elements of natural pedagogical conversations during an internship in a science laboratory. It offers ISE practitioners insight into how scientists teach science in their labs, how youth interns initiate learning, and describes productive conversational forms that may impact their own work with youth.


Oliveira, A. (2010). Improving teacher questioning in science inquiry discussions through professional development. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 47(4), 422–453.

Teachers who participated in professional development aimed at increasing awareness of the cognitive and social functions of questioning social understanding and questioning practices led to teachers creating more student-centered classrooms. This research shows that, through discourse analysis, teachers were able to reflect on and adopt questioning strategies that led to students’ higher-level thinking, longer and more sophisticated responses, and self-evaluation.


Allen, S., & Gutwill, J. P. (2010). Creating a program to deepen family inquiry at interactive science exhibits. Curator: The Museum Journal, 52(3), 289–306.

Many informal science institutions design exhibits to encourage inquiry and experimentation. But the authors of this paper suggest that often museums have found that visitors lack the expertise or confidence to engage in coherent inquiry. They report here on their efforts to equip visitors with key inquiry skills through providing families and groups with focused trainings on how to use inquiry-based exhibits.


Chin, C., & Osborne, J. (2010). Supporting argumentation through case studies in science classrooms. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 19 (2), 230–284.

In this study, researchers investigated how student-generated questions could operate to advance scientific argumentation and understanding in a middle school classroom by illuminating prior knowledge, highlighting inconsistencies, and identifying and evaluating evidence, among other things. This article might be relevant to ISE educators who use or want to use student questioning to advance students' scientific reasoning in structured educational programs.


Aguiar, O. G., Mortimer, E. F., & Scott, P. (2010). Learning from and responding to students’ questions: The authoritative and dialogic tension. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 47(2), 174–193.

This study analyzes the impact of the wonderment questions of students on the teacher and student discourse in the classroom. It also points out that handling the different types of questions is a challenge for both the ISE professionals and the schoolteachers; this is particularly true because the “wonderment” types of questions are encouraged and expected in informal learning settings.


France, B. & Bay, J. (2010) Questions students ask: Bridging the gap between scientists and students in a research institute classroom. International Journal of Science Education, 32(2), 173–194.

This study, conducted in New Zealand, is an analysis of the questions that students in their final year of high school were anticipated asking, and asked, during a visit to a biomedical research institute. The analysis highlights, along with the interview findings, the ways in which students developed an understanding of biomedical research, saw science as a process, and acknowledged a commonality of values between themselves and the scientists. This study will be of interest to ISE educators who facilitate interactions between students and scientists and who organize opportunities for students to observe the authentic practice of science in professional settings.