You for Youth (2010). Right time, right place: Building an online learning community for afterschool practitioners. Afterschool Matters 10, 8–14.
You for Youth (www.Y4Y.ed.gov) is a learning community and website started in 2008 for the grantees of the 21st Century Community Learning Centers (21st CCLC), a U.S. Department of Education program that began in 1998 to support out-of-school time programs. The Y4Y project team describes how this project started as a response to the need for low-cost professional development in a wide range of skills, including conflict management, student engagement, and building relationships with the community. Inputs from practitioners, policymakers, evaluators, and other stakeholders were used in this project.
Blank, R. K. (2013). Science instructional time is declining in elementary schools: What are the implications for student achievement and closing the gap? Science Education, 97(6), 830–847. doi:10.1002/sce.21078
For over a decade, science educators have lamented the ways in which testing in reading and mathematics has reduced time for science instruction. Blank used 20 years of national teacher and student data to understand how time allocated to science instruction combines with student demographics to shape test scores. The study found a small but significant positive relationship between time on science instruction and performance.
Roschelle, J., Bakia, M., Toyama, Y, & Patton, C. (2011). Eight issues for learning scientists about education and the economy. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 20(1), 3–49.
The authors of this paper examine a common rhetorical claim that improved STEM education is critical to the economic future of the United States. The first part of the paper points out certain weaknesses in this argument. The second part considers how learning research might be directed to test connections between STEM education and the economy, including with respect to workforce pipeline issues and programs. This paper is addressed to researchers in the learning sciences, but its arguments may also be of interest to educators leading workforce development programs.
Cannady, M. A., Greenwald, E., & Harris, K. N. (2014). Problematizing the STEM pipeline metaphor: Is the STEM pipeline metaphor serving our students and the STEM workforce? Science Education, 98(3), 443–460. doi:10.1002/sce.21108
Cannady, Greenwald, and Harris call into question the accuracy of the STEM pipeline metaphor. They argue that a decade of pipeline-related policy prescriptions has not significantly affected the numbers or demographics of the STEM workforce. The authors found that almost half of STEM workers did not follow the traditional pipeline to a STEM career.
Moore, T. J., Tank, K. M., Glancy, A. W., & Kersten, J. A. (2015). NGSS and the landscape of engineering in K–12 state science standards. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 52(3), 296–318. doi:10.1002/tea.21199
The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) represent a dramatic shift in expectations for K–12 science education, particularly in its inclusion of engineering design. To understand the shifts that schools may need to make, Moore, Tank, Glancy, and Kersten examine the ways in which state K–12 science standards, prior to the adoption of NGSS, included engineering.
Evans, M. S. (2012). Supporting science: Reasons, restrictions, and the role of religion. Science Communication, 34(3), 334–372. doi:10.1177/1075547011417890
Would religious Americans impose a ten-year moratorium on scientific research? Of 62 interviewees, 60 responded negatively. Interestingly, respondents employed reasoning skills alongside their religious beliefs, complicating the common belief that scientific and religious values cannot co-exist in the same person.
Anderson, K. J. B. (2012). Science education and test-based accountability: Reviewing their relationship and exploring implications for future policy. Science Education, 96(1), 104–129. doi:10.1002/sce.20464
For almost two decades, strict accountability measures have been in place across the country. In this literature review, Anderson investigated the effect of accountability on K–12 science instruction. He found that curricula have narrowed, less time is being dedicated to science, teacher morale is lower, and expectations for some student groups have increased.
Hall, G. & Gannett, E. (2010). Body and soul: Reflections on two professional development credential pilots in Massachusetts. Afterschool Matters, 10, 15-23.
The authors of this paper conducted an evaluation of two pilot credential programs both starting in Massachusetts in 2007, the School-Age Youth Development Credential (SAYD) and the Professional Youth Worker Credential (PYWC). Their reflections on the need for professional development for out-of-school time (OST) staff and youth workers show that the field of youth development at present is at crossroads. Based on the evaluation of these two pilot programs, the researchers advocate the establishment of a nationally recognized credential to professionalize the youth development field. The need to recognize the professional status of practitioners indicates that OST programs are valuable for stakeholders. Furthermore, if OST practitioners are to have credentials, how would this affect ISE practitioners running related programs in museums, science centers, and other educational institutions? This paper introduces ISE practitioners to the leading organizations in the OST field.